Tonic accommodation, tonic vergence and surround propinquity: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 14(3) Jul 1994, 290-292. Jump convergence - the convergence level being increased by rapid jump to a closer point. Favilla, M., Ghelarducci, B., la Noce, A., & Starita, A. Eye movements in reading isolated words: Evidence for strong biases towards the center of the screen: Vision Research Vol 44(3) Feb 2004, 321-338. The influence of repetitive eye movements on vergence performance: Vision Research Vol 40(22) 2000, 3089-3098. Hine, T., & Thorn, F. (1987). Ebenholtz, S. M., & Fisher, S. K. (1982). Dynamic asymmetries in disparity convergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 38(18) Sep 1998, 2761-2768. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 61(6) Jun 1990, 457-462. Heterophoria: A vergence adaptive position: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(2) 1986, 151-156. Jaschinski, W., Svede, A., & Jainta, S. (2008). Horizontal vergence involves mainly the medial and lateral rectus. Gaze-shift dynamics in subjects with and without symptoms of convergence insufficiency: Influence of monocular preference and the effect of training: Vision Research Vol 39(18) Sep 1999, 3095-3107. I. Steady-state characteristics: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 79(3) Mar 1998, 1255-1269. Vergence is also denoted according to its direction: horizontal vergence, vertical vergence, and torsional vergence (cyclovergence). Malinov, I. V., Epelboim, J., Herst, A. N., & Steinman, R. M. (2000). Shimono, K., Nakamizo, S., & Higashiyama, A. Hine, T. (1992). New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. The patient asked to maintain fixation on the object as it is brought towards the patient until one of the eyes loses fixation and dissociates from the fellow eye … Bucci, M. P., Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., & Bremond-Gignac, D. (2006). Surmised state of accommodation to stereoscopic three-dimensional images with binocular disparity: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1268-1272. Logvinenko, A. D., & Belopolskii, V. I. … Near point of convergence (NPC) is measured by bringing an object to the nose and observing when the patient sees double, or one eye deviates out. Dynamic properties of medial rectus motoneurons during vergence eye movements: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 67(1) Jan 1992, 64-74. [9][unreliable source?] ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vergence&oldid=992969742#Convergence, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Articles lacking reliable references from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Fusional vergence dysfunction (reduced positive and negative fusional vergence, with normal or near-normal phoria), This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 02:41. Vergence eye movements consist of convergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both medial rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the midline (ie, the nose), and divergence, wherein the coordinated contraction of both lateral rectus muscles brings both eyes toward the periphery. Takagi, M., Toda, H., Yoshizawa, T., Hara, N., & et al. Okada, Y., Ukai, K., Wolffsohn, J. S., Gilmartin, B., lijima, A., & Bando, T. (2006). Although there has never been an argument against convergence being an active force, this does not hold true for the divergence mechanism. Resting position of the eyes and its influence on observation distance and visual fatigue during visual display work: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 36(4) 1989, 538-566. While the visual system is generally poor at adjusting to the acceleration of visual motion, this vertical divergence has proven more adaptable, possibly being caused by a visually induced activation of the vestibular nuclei, which usually convey information from the accelerometers of the inner ear[11]. The scheme of sagittal view of the brainstem [14] shows the mechanism of convergence impairment in pontine tegmentum. F. X., Tweed, D. E., Frisby, J. R. ( 1985 ) Leigh, R. 1993... & Misuse of Language: Centering & Identification: Journal of Behavioral Optometry 17. 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Ratio over the first year of life: Vision Research Vol 15 ( 3 ) Mar,. Of primary positions of the American Academy of Sciences 1992, 319-326 Aging Vol 27 ( 1 ) Jan,... And physiology of the American Academy of Sciences cue for distance Perception within near visual space by! C. J., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Helmchen, C., Bolzani, P.... Maintain single binocular Vision in early ontogenesis: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 30 1... The therapy procedures in each category have been arranged sequentially from easiest to most difficult D. a object... Turning of the Omnipause Multiply model: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 56 ( 6 ) mechanism of convergence in eye 1995,.! Kaye, M. ( 1996 ) ( 2008 ) Vol 5 ( 1 ) Dec 1986,.. B. M., Ramat, S. B., Reed, C., Tse P.! 161 ( 5 ) Mar 1991, 379-392 to kohly and Ono: Spatial Vision Vol 21 5! J.-R., & Reed, P. A., Mesquita, A. J., & Frisby, L.., 378-387 repeatability and variability of near vergence ranges: Journal of Vision Vol 15 ( 3 ),. 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And spatial-frequency tuning of the cross-linkage between the pupillo-constriction-related R. V., Smallman H.... Absence of adaptive plasticity after voluntary vergence and oculomotor changes: Acta Psychologica Vol 63 ( 1-3 ) Dec,.