[15][39], The religion Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council to help assist the Karzai administration and provide basic security. [1] Pashto is the native tongue of the Pashtuns, although many of them are also fluent in Dari while some non-Pashtuns are fluent in Pashto. According to article 140 of the constitution and the presidential decree on electoral law, mayors of cities should be elected through free and direct elections for a four-year term. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. The lands of Afghanistan have a long history of art, with the world's earliest known usage of oil painting found in cave murals in the country. [145][146], Taliban forces meanwhile began regrouping inside Pakistan, while more coalition troops entered Afghanistan to help the rebuilding process. But the talks have stalled as both sides debate procedural issues. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. The national team has never competed or qualified for the FIFA World Cup but has recently won an international football trophy in 2013. The intentions of … [251] Afghanistan's opium poppy harvest produces more than 90% of illicit heroin globally, and more than 95% of the European supply. [177] Forests exist in the corridor between Nuristan and Paktika provinces,[178] and tundra in the north-east. [80] He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favor of a more gradual approach to modernization but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a fifteen-year-old Hazara student who was an Amanullah loyalist. Afghanistan Military Power 2019 How Powerful is Afghanistan? [263][264] However an ancient tradition involving male homosexual acts between youngsters and older men (typically wealthy or elite people) called bacha bazi persists. Attempts were made, often with the support of foreign donor countries, to improve the country's economy, healthcare, education, transport, and agriculture. Despite that, archaeologists are still finding Buddhist relics in different parts of the country, some of them dating back to the 2nd century. [385] By the 1920s, Radio Kabul was broadcasting local radio services. Another of Zahir Shah's uncles, Shah Mahmud Khan, became Prime Minister in 1946 and began an experiment allowing greater political freedom, but reversed the policy when it went further than he expected. "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018", https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS?end=2018&locations=AF&start=2005&view=chart, "Afghanistan Has Capacity To Produce 310,000MW Power", "Afghanistan Resurrects its Largest Hydropower Plant Toward a Brighter Future", "Power to the People: How to extend Afghans' access to electricity", "The Power of Nature: How Renewable Energy is Changing Lives in Afghanistan", "20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan annually", "Coronavirus shatters tourism hopes in Afghanistan's Bamyan province", "More than 200,000 tourists visit Bamyan this year", "When Afghanistan was just a laid-back highlight on the hippie trail", "Bamyan, First Ever Cultural Capital of South Asia: A big party, but what else? Heathcote, Tony (1980, 2003) "The Afghan Wars 1839–1919", Sellmount Staplehurst. [333][334] There are various proposals for the construction of additional rail lines in the country. The talks were intended to create a power-sharing agreement for Afghanistan and for a permanent ceasefire. This was a standard divide and rule policy of the British and would lead to strained relations, especially with the later new state of Pakistan. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army was equipped by the Soviet Union. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established in 2002 to help the country recover from decades of war. Its basketball team won the first team sports title at the 2010 South Asian Games. The Afghan Pashto literature, although quantitatively remarkable and in great growth in the last century, has always had an essentially local meaning and importance, feeling the influence of both Persian literature and the contiguous literatures of India. Among the most well known are the Great Mosque of Herat, the Blue Mosque, the Minaret of Jam, the Chil Zena, the Qala-i Bost in Lashkargah, the ancient Greek city of Ai-Khanoum. [11] Despite having $1 trillion or more in mineral deposits,[269] it remains one of the world's least developed countries. In 2012, the United States and Afghanistan signed their Strategic Partnership Agreement in which Afghanistan became a major non-NATO ally. Much of it soon broke away from them and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. [79] Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, Amanullah's cousin, in turn defeated and killed Kalakani in October 1929, and was declared King Nadir Shah. Between 2012 and 2019, the saffron cultivated and produced in Afghanistan was consecutively ranked the world's best by the International Taste and Quality Institute. [78] Khan's wife Queen Soraya Tarzi was a figure during this period. The United States military has been engaged in Afghanistan since shortly after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. This act is also illegal under the Penal Code and offenders can be imprisoned. [259][260], Homosexuality is taboo in Afghan society;[261] according to the Penal Code, homosexual intimacy is punished by up to a year in prison. Other notable poets include Rabi'a Balkhi, Jami, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak. [279], Several small companies and factories began operating in different parts of the country, which not only provide revenues to the government but also create new jobs. More than 38,000 of those killed have been civilians". Alexander the Great invaded the region in the 4th century BCE, who married Roxana in Bactria before his Kabul Valley campaign, where he faced resistance from Aspasioi and Assakan tribes. [390] The stereotypes of Afghans in India (Kabuliwala or Pathani) has also been represented in some Bollywood films by actors. Cricket and association football are the two most popular sports in the country. By Kemel Toktomushev. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire with its capital at Kandahar. The Afghan region has produced countless Persian-speaking poets and writers from the Middle Ages to the present day, among which three mystical authors are considered true national glories (although claimed with equal ardor by Iran), namely: Khwaja Abdullah Ansari of Herat, a great mystic and Sufi saint in the 11th century, Sanai of Ghazni, author of mystical poems in the 12th century, and, finally, Rumi of Balkh, in the 13th century, considered the persophonist throughout the world as the greatest mystical poet of the entire Muslim world. [139][140] By this time, after two decades of war as well as an acute famine at the time, Afghanistan had one of the highest infant and child mortality rates in the world, the lowest life expectancy, much of the population were hungry,[141][142][143] and infrastructure was in ruins. Major universities outside of Kabul include Kandahar University in the south, Herat University in the northwest, Balkh University and Kunduz University in the north, Nangarhar University and Khost University in the east. Both main literatures, from the second half of the nineteenth century, have shown themselves to be sensitive to genres (novel, theater), movements and stylistic features imported from Europe. [172] The renowned Urdu poet Muhammad Allama Iqbal once wrote about the country:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. They gave primacy to a strong military, centralized government control from Kabul, and signaled the primacy of the Pashtun as the country’s ruling group. It quickly turned into a proxy war as the Pakistani government provided these rebels with covert training centers, the United States supported them through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI),[87] and the Soviet Union sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA regime. [282], Agricultural production is the backbone of Afghanistan's economy[283] and has traditionally dominated the economy, employing about 40% of the workforce as of 2018. A cloak reputedly worn by Islam's prophet Muhammad is kept inside the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar, a city founded by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan. 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